Remedy Selection & Implementation

Enforcement Actions

The DEQ undertakes enforcement actions to preserve safe environmental conditions throughout Wyoming. 

This page contains information on the enforcement actions that the Solid and Hazardous Waste Division may undertake, as well as a record of enforcement actions that have been undertaken by SHWD.

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Electronic Document Submittal

In response to the Governor's request to limit contact and the move toward most WDEQ staff working remotely for the near future, the Solid and Hazardous Waste Division (SHWD) have made electronic document submittal available. This includes work plans, reports, general correspondence and Solid Waste permit applications. Electronic submittal forms are now available for SHWD programs. Please choose the appropriate form from the list of links below to upload documents. If submitted electronically, no hardcopy is required to be submitted unless you are contacted by SHWD staff with a request to submit the hard copy. Please note that SHWD is unable to accept comments on documents in public notice via these forms. Please refer to the public notice for instructions on how to submit comments.   

Hazardous Waste, Voluntary Remediation, Orphan Site Programs  

Solid Waste Permitting & Corrective Action Program                      
Proposed Rules and Regulations

This page contains any proposed Rules or Regulations that are currently under development within the Solid and Hazardous Waste Division. 

Hazardous Waste Rules, Chapter 1

The Hazardous Waste Rules, Chapter 1, General Provisions were adopted and filed with the Wyoming Secretary of State on April 7, 2022.  See

Solid Waste

The Solid Waste Permitting and Corrective Action Program is conducting a public outreach on proposed revisions to the Solid Waste Rules Chapter 3 Industrial Landfills Regulations.

Rules and Regulations

All official Wyoming State Rules and Regulations are kept at the Wyoming Secretary of State’s Office. Click here to view all current Rules and Regulations.

Remedy Selection and Implementation

This page contains information regarding remedies that are proposed and evaluated for cleanup of contaminated media at VRP sites. These remedies must meet the remedy standards defined in the Environmental Quality Act.

To meet those standards, and depending on site circumstances, a Volunteer may use predetermined cleanup levels (see Factsheet #12 Soil Cleanup Levels) or may develop site-specific cleanup levels for impacted media. In addition, remedies can include institutional and engineering controls

Remedy Standards

Remedies under the VRP must meet minimum standards that:

  • Protect human health, safety, and the environment.
  • Remediate contaminated air, soil, and water to attain applicable cleanup levels established under Federal or State law or regulation or to attain site-specific risk-based cleanup levels developed for the site.
  • Control any sources of releases to reduce or eliminate, to the extent technically practicable, further releases as required to protect human health and the environment.
  • Comply with any applicable standard for management of wastes generated as a consequence of the remedy.

The Volunteer must provide a description of alternative remedial actions to be evaluated and propose remedies that meet the minimum standards identified above.

Further, when evaluating a remedy or combination of remedies, the Volunteer must address the balancing criteria found in the Environmental Quality Act, and described in question #15 of Factsheet #21 Remedy Selection. The relative importance of the balancing criteria may vary based on site-specific conditions.

Institutional Controls

Institutional controls are legal or administrative measures that limit human exposure to contaminants. Examples of institutional controls include:

  • Use control areas
  • Easements
  • Zoning restrictions
  • Deed notices

A site may have a single or multiple institutional controls to enhance the protectiveness of the remedy.

Engineering Controls

Engineering controls are measures that help manage environmental and health risks by reducing contamination levels or limiting exposure pathways. Examples of engineering controls include:

  • Capping
  • Containment
  • Slurry walls
  • Extraction walls
  • Treatment methods

Formalizing Remedies

Remedy selection is formalized in a remedy agreement. A remedy agreement is an agreement between DEQ and a Volunteer that establishes the specific remedial actions that will be implemented at a site. The remedy and remediation standards for a site that are set forth in a remedy agreement are permanent, subject to the reopeners and termination clauses defined in the Environmental Quality Act (see Factsheet #21 Remedy Selection).

A remedy agreement typically contains:

  • A remedial action plan
  • A description of any engineering or institutional controls that are associated with the remedy
  • A schedule
  • Provisions for modifying (reopening) or terminating the agreement
  • Financial assurances
  • Other provisions necessary to support efficient and effective implementation of the remedy.

Remedy Implementation

Once the DEQ and the Volunteer enter into a remedy agreement, the Volunteer implements the remedy in accordance with the terms and conditions in the agreement.


Remedy implementation includes:

  • Construction and start-up of the remedy
  • Monitoring of remediation progress
  • Remedy progress reports to DEQ
  • Sampling and analysis to confirm that cleanup levels are achieved at points of compliance

Liability Assurances

When a remedy agreement is in place, DEQ can issue a covenant not to sue.  Following completion of remedial actions, the Volunteer may seek either a certificate of completion or no further action from the DEQ.

For more information about these liability assurances, please see the Incentives web page or Factsheet #15 Liability Assurances.

VRP/HWCA Program Manager
Ben Luckey
200 W. 17th Street, 2nd Floor
Cheyenne, WY 82002  
Cindi Martinez
Brownfields and Orphan Sites Remediation Program Supervisor
200 W. 17th Street, 2nd Floor
Cheyenne, WY 82002

Please see the documents below for information on Voluntary Remediation Program activities: 

Additional Information

This tab contains a variety of additional information and resources pertaining to the Voluntary Remediation Program. Click through the links to access this information. 

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Public Participation

The Voluntary Remediation Program establishes two unique avenues for public participation:

  1. Initial Notice Regarding Acceptance into the VRP
    Volunteers must mail a letter to owners of property adjacent to the site notifying the owners of the potential contamination. This letter also must provide instructions for comments and to request a public participation plan (see Fact Sheet #2 for a description of a public participation plan - needs link).

    Volunteers must publish a display ad for four consecutive weeks in a newspaper with general circulation in the county where the site is located.

  2. Notice Regarding the Proposed Adoption of a Remedy Agreement
    Volunteers must mail a second letter to owners of property adjacent to the site notifying the owners of the proposed remedy along with instructions for how to make comments or to request a public hearing.

    Volunteers must also publish a display ad for four consecutive weeks in a newspaper with general circulation in the county where the site is located.

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Site Lists

This tab contains content and information about the Voluntary Remediation Program sites around Wyoming. There are currently over 200 sites in the VRP, and new Volunteers are entering the program and beginning cleanup at their sites.
To see the interactive VRP GIS-based Flex Viewer, click here. An updated static map and a User's Guide for the Flex Viewer will be available soon.

To view a detailed VRP site list that includes locations with Institutional Controls please see the list below. This list provides specific information about each VRP site, including:

  • Volunteer names
  • Site locations
  • Dates that the sites entered the program and finalized a preliminary remediation agreement or remedy agreement

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Success Stories

The SHWD Voluntary Remediation Program has enabled the successful cleanup and restoration of contaminated lands in a number of communities around Wyoming. The impacts made through the VRP are not only enduring for these communities – they're also achieved through economically feasible practices that encourage the long-term, productive usage of these lands. 

Browse through the following stories to learn more about the program's established successes.

Jackson Hole VRP Site

The Jackson Hole Mountain Resort maintenance shop was a classic brownfield site. A developer was interested in purchasing this property and turning it into a world-class hotel complex. However, potential environmental issues presented an obstacle for obtaining financing for the hotel complex.

The VRP worked diligently with the environmental consultant and the developer to move the site through the independent cleanup process (ICP). Earlier site investigations, combined with soil removals, revealed no remaining environmental concerns; therefore, the VRP was able to provide the environmental liability assurances necessary to secure funding for the purchase of the property and construction of the hotel complex. Today, in the place where a small maintenance shop once stood, a beautiful four-star hotel and condominium complex rest in the shadow of the beautiful Teton Mountains near Jackson Hole.

City of Evanston VRP Site

In 1972, the Union Pacific Railroad gifted the City of Evanston with the historical Roundhouse and Railyard Complex, which is also located in Evanston. The buildings, soils, and groundwater on the site were contaminated with a variety of organic and inorganic contaminants.

The City of Evanston, in an effort to remediate and restore this site, applied and was accepted into the DEQ's VRP on February 4, 2003. VRP staff worked extensively with the City of Evanston to evaluate and identify different options for addressing the contamination that were protective of human health and the environment and were cost effective and economically feasible. In addition, VRP staff worked with the City of Evanston to help identify potential funding sources for remediation and restoration efforts. In 2006, DEQ determined that the Roundhouse and Railyard Complex met the definition of a brownfield and that the City of Evanston was a favorable candidate to receive Brownfields Cleanup Assistance.

The City of Evanston is using a phased approach to remediate and restore the site. The first phase has focused on cleaning up and restoring the historic machine shop, and constructing a paved parking lot and pedestrian plaza. The machine shop and parking lot are completed and the pedestrian plaza is underway. The Brownfields Cleanup Assistance was used for the cleanup of the parking lot area. The next phase (2) will focus on remediation and restoration of the Roundhouse and surrounding area. The City of Evanston is currently pursuing additional funding sources to help with Phase 2.

Once cleaned up and renovated, the Roundhouse and Railyard Complex will provide a tremendous revitalization focus for downtown Evanston and a significant economic benefit for the community.